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Planned work is a technique used to foresee each step in a series of separate operations, with each step being taken at the right time and in the right place, while each operation is performed with maximum efficiency.
Planned work can be defined as a technique used to foresee each step in a series of separate operations, with each step being taken at the right time and in the right place, while each operation is performed with maximum efficiency. In other words, planned work gives you full control over your manufacturing process, which ultimately leads to the ability to minimize waste, improve process flow, better manage personnel and avoid bottlenecks.
Author and personal time management educator Alan Lakein is famous for saying, "Planning is bringing the future into the present, so you can do something about it now." Put simply, be prepared. Planning and being prepared for not just potential future occurrences but weekly and daily schedules create an efficient culture and increase reliability.
The objectives of planned work may vary across industries, but generally production planning aims to:
Specifically, in the manufacturing industry, planned work aims to ensure procurement operates smoothly, making certain that materials and equipment are available when needed and that production and scheduling needs are met.
Before you can begin planning work for all facets of your operation, you need a couple of pieces of information. First, you should have a full overview of the necessary materials, equipment and components required for your end product.
1. Product components: These consist of a bill of materials (BOM), routing (the process of producing the item), raw material availability in stock, the cost of raw materials and lead time, and prices from the supplier.
Secondly, you'll need to connect the dots and figure out what is required to take the product components and turn them into the final product.
2. Labor and workstations: This will include workforce personnel and machine availability, machine capacity and productivity, costs associated with labor, and the machinery within each workstation.
Knowing this information gets you well on your way to a plan that not only prepares you for the unexpected but also answers key questions like how long will it take for my product to be ready and what will it cost. The benefits of planned work are far-reaching and include things such as improved organization that promotes regular and timely delivery, better communication with suppliers for improved raw material procurement, a reduction in inventory investment, a decrease in production costs through increased efficiency, a better flow of all production processes, a reduction in the amount of wasted resources and an improved bottom line.
To get a snapshot of how planned work can benefit an organization, let's take a look at an example. When it comes to planned work and maintenance, studies have shown that one hour of properly planned maintenance eliminates three hours of repair work. More widely accepted is that every planned maintenance hour is worth two breakdown hours. Knowing this, imagine your plant currently operates at 70 percent reactive maintenance to 30 percent planned maintenance. Your goal is to achieve 80 percent planned maintenance and 20 percent reactive maintenance
A two-hour reduction in reactive maintenance occurs with the addition of one more hour. However, personnel find they are now spending 98 hours on what used to take 100 hours. If they continue to increase planned work incrementally, the reduction in reactive maintenance will continue to add up until they reach at or near 80 percent planned work. The table below outlines this logic.
|Total Maintenance Hours||Planned Maintenance Hours||Unplanned Maintenance Hours||% of Planned Work|
Since each planned work hour reduces unplanned work hours by two, the crew will have only spent approximately 62 man-hours performing about 100 man-hours worth of work by the time the plant reaches 90 percent planned work.
Planned work in the manufacturing sector doesn't always just involve maintenance. Manufacturing planning and control plans consist of multiple stages across the entire business.
Part of planned work involves production planning and control. The British Standards Institute lays out four stages or techniques in the process of production planning and control. They consist of routing, scheduling, dispatching and follow-up. The first two steps, routing and scheduling, deal with production planning, while the last two steps, dispatching and follow-up, focus on production control.
Routing provides a systematic way of taking raw materials and turning them into the finished product. When planning for routing, consider human factors such as human needs and expectations, as well as the plant layout, which includes what machines do and where they are located.
The goal of scheduling is to optimize time by bringing time coordination to production planning. This, in turn, ensures on-time delivery for all products and eliminates any idle capacity.
Material requirements planning (MRP) is most often used during the routing and scheduling phases of production planning and control. This planning and control system for inventory and scheduling breaks down the master production schedule into a more detailed schedule so you can more easily know when to purchase raw materials and components.
Material requirements planning is a type of inventory control push system that uses forecasting to help determine customer demand. An organization forecasts the number of products it needs to buy, along with the number of materials required to produce those products. The products are then pushed to the consumer. Contrastingly, a pull system is where the customer places an order first. As you can imagine, push systems are vulnerable to variations in sales, making them inaccurate and causing a shortage or surplus of inventory.
Material requirements planning is an important aspect of identifying the two types of inventory: independent demand and dependent demand. Independent demand is the end product, like a skateboard or a car. Dependent demand is the need for components and parts to reach the end product, like wheels for the skateboard or doors for the car. Dependent demand is directly determined by figuring out the quantity of independent demand. This relationship between the end product and the materials are calculated using MRP.
Material requirements planning puts together an orderly flow of materials, components and parts in an order system based around the production schedule. It also tracks variables such as purchase and sales orders, materials shortage, expedited orders, forecasts, due dates, bill of materials (BOM) and more.
Material requirements planning consists of three basic processes:
Used properly, MRP can reduce stored inventory, component shortages, overall manufacturing costs and more. One of the biggest downsides to MRP is the potential for human error. You must keep inventory records and BOM changes up to date so the correct figures are input when calculating MRP.
In addition to production planning and control, planned work involves the planning of maintenance work — maintenance planning and scheduling (MPS). Maintenance planning is an end-to-end process intended to identify and address any possible issues before they occur. Maintenance scheduling refers to the timing of planned work, when the work should be done and who should perform it. Used together, the two help control your budget through the managing of resources, helping to reduce downtime and spare parts, improving workflow, and more.
Implementing MPS consists of six phases:
Planned work is made much easier with the continuous advancement of technology. Planned work-specific software comes pre-engineered to manage various aspects of planning and scheduling and can be integrated together to minimize data input.